Created by W.Langdon from gp-bibliography.bib Revision:1.7175
GP is distinctive from other machine-learning algorithms in that its output is typically a computer program: hence Genetic Programming. The GP system documented here conducts learning with a series of very simple selection and transformation steps modelled loosely on biological evolution repeated over-and-over on a population of evolving computer programs. The selection step attempts to mimic natural selection. The transformation steps, crossover and mutation, loosely mimic biological eukaryotic reproduction. Although the individual steps are simple, the dynamics of a GP run are complex.
This thesis traces key research elements in the design of a widely-used GP system. It also presents empirical comparisons of the GP system that resulted from these design elements to other leading machine-learning algorithms. Each of the issues addressed in this thesis touches on what was, at the time of publication, a key, and not well understood, issue regarding the dynamics and behaviour of GP runs. In particular, the design issues addressed here are threefold: (1) The emergence in GP runs of introns or code bloat. Introns in GP are segments of code that have no effect on the output of the program in which they appear. Introns are an emergent phenomenon in GP. This thesis reports results that support the hypothesis that introns emerge as a means of protecting evolving programs against the destructive effect of the traditional GP crossover transformation operator. (2) Mutation in biological reproduction is rare and usually destructive. However, we present results which establish that, in GP, using the mutation transformation operator with high probability, generates better and more robust evolved programs than using the mutation transformation operator at the low levels found in biological reproduction. (3) Finally, we return to the GP crossover operator and present results that suggest that a homologous crossover operator produces better and more robust results than the traditional GP crossover operator.
The GP system that resulted from the above research has been publicly available since 1998. It has been extensively tested and compared to other machine-learning paradigms. This thesis presents results that suggest the resulting GP system produces consistently high-quality and robust solutions when compared to Vapnick statistical regression, decision trees, and neural networks over a wide range of problem domains and problem types.",
Genetic Programming entries for Frank D Francone