abstract = "the absolute benefit, a measure of improvement in the
fitness space, is derived from the viewpoint of fitness
distribution and fitness trajectory analysis. It is
used for online operator-adaptation, where the
optimisation of density estimation models serves as an
example. A new information theory based measure is
proposed to judge the accuracy of the evolved models.
Further, the absolute benefit is applied to offline
analysis of new gradient based operators used for
coefficient adaptation in genetic programming. An
efficient method to calculate the gradient information
notes = "CEC-99 - A joint meeting of the IEEE, Evolutionary
Programming Society, Galesia, and the IEE.