abstract = "It has been shown that standard genetic programming
using standard subtree crossover is prone to a form of
structural convergence which makes it extremely
difficult to make changes near the root, occasionally
causing runs to become trapped in local maxima. Based
on these structural limitations we propose a different
tree representation, AppGP, which we hope will avoid
this problem in some cases. In this paper, we describe
this representation, and compare its performance to the
performance of standard GP on a suite of test problems.
We find that on all of the test problems, AppGP does no
worse than standard GP, and in several it does
considerably better, suggesting that the representation
warrants further study",
notes = "CEC-99 - A joint meeting of the IEEE, Evolutionary
Programming Society, Galesia, and the IEE.